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Idea, implementation and design by
Andrey Tretyakov (aka inscriptor)

Andrei Tretyakov, inscriptor, creounity

and Creative Force
2009.

Shortcut of the Creounity Time Machine
(English version) is:
creounity.com/tmconv

Acknowledgements

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Tibet

  • Direct conversion
  • Reverse conversion

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  • Chronological system info
  • Images of coins

Common information. The formula for date conversion

In accordance with the Tibetan calendar, the timeline of life is divided into the equal time cells, their length being 60 years. The rule for writing the date on Tibetan coins is as follows: the number of the cycle is specified first, followed by the serial number of a year in the current cycle. For instance, the 22nd year of the 16th cycle is defined as 16/22. The date conversion formula is slightly complicated. Here it is:

Date AD = ( of cycle 1)×60 + of the year in a cycle + 1026.

Looking back at our example, we have: 16/22 = (16 1)×60 + 22 + 1026 = 922 + 1026 = 1948.

On the picture above,

1 serial number of the cycle;

2 serial number of the year in the specified cycle.

There's a variety of ways of writing numerals, so this converter provides 3 highly recognizable variants for each numeral.

As a part of a typeface, Tibetan digits are written as follows:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

For those who can't see numerals in the table above, here's a PNG version of it (screenshot was made in Google Chrome, Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion):

Peculiarities of date inscriptions on Tibetan coins

On some Tibetan coins you'll see dates written using words, not numerals in plain English, imagine you wrote sixteentwo instead of 162).

Here is a table providing Tibetan words for the numbers 1 to 30.

1 16
2 17
3 18
4 19
5 20
6 21
7 22
8 23
9 24
10 25
11 26
12 27
13 28
14 29
15 30

Known Tibetan coin denominations

Nowadays Tibet is part of China, and only referred to as the spiritual omphalos of the religious doctrine called Tibetan Buddhism. Tibet had a very complicated system of currency units. Some of the known denominations are as follows: tangka, skar, sho, srang.

Tibet had a dual system of currency units. One system was imported from Nepal and its basic unit is called the tangka equivalent to about 5.4 to 5.6 grams of alloyed silver, whereas the other was imported from China and its basic unit is the srang equivalent to 37.3 grams of silver. These two systems were used in Tibet concurrently from about 1640 until 1959.

The respective values of these coins are as follows:

1 srang = 6 2/3 tangkas.

1 tangka = 1½ sho = 15 skar.

½ tangka = 7½ skar.

1 sho = 2/3 tangka = 10 skar.

The subdivisions of the srang are the following:

1 srang = (6 2/3 * 1½) sho = 10 sho = 100 skar.

1 sho = 10 skar.


The following coin denominations were struck in Tibet in the XX-th century:

Coins made of copper: ½ skar; 1 skar; 1/8 sho; 1/4 sho; 2½ skar; 5 skar; 7½ skar; 1 sho; 3 sho; 5 sho.

Coins made of silver or billon: 1 tangka; 1 sho; 2 sho; 5 sho; 1 srang; 1½ srang; 3 srang; 5 srang (in limited numbers); 10 srang.

Coins made of gold: 20 srang.

[Added January 30, 2014] According to coinweek.com/auctions-news/rare-tibetan-coins-at-spink/, the gold 20 srang denomination was only issued between 1918 (1552) and 1921 (1555), this coin type was struck in the Serkhang mint which was located near Norbulingka, the summer residence of the Dalai Lamas. This is one of the most desirable coins of the Tibetan series, year 55 (i.e. 1921 AD) is the rarest (estimated price is US $10,000$15,000). You can see this coin minted in 1918 (1552) in the tab of Images of coins, picture 18, and a preview of year 1921 (1555) here: http://www.spink.com/media/43176/4_300x152.jpg.


Jump to the picture #
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 56-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1922
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 3 srang
Tibetan era: 16-th cycle, 8-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1934
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 5 sho
Tibetan era: 16-th cycle, 22-nd year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1948
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 5 sho
Tibetan era: 16-th cycle, 23-rd year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1949
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 57-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1923
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Tibetan era: 16-th cycle, 1-st year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1927
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): tangka
Tibetan era: 13-th cycle, 45-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1791
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet (influence of the Qing Empire)
Year of emperor's reign: 58-th (五十八年)
Emperor: Qianlong
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1793
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet (influence of the Qing Empire)
Denomination (value): 1 sho
Year of emperor's reign: 61-st (六十一年)
Emperor: Qianlong
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1796
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 3 srang
Tibetan era: 16-th cycle, 20-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1946
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 1 srang
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 43-rd year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1909
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet (influence of the Qing Empire)
Emperor: Jiaqing
Year of emperor's reign: 6-th (六年)
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1801
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 1 sho
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 52-nd year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1918
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 1 sho
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 58-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1924
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet (influence of the Qing Empire)
Emperor: Daoguang
Year of emperor's reign: 3-rd (三年)
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1822
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 7½ skar
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 53-rd year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1919
Denomination (value): 1 sho
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 60-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1926
Special thanks: http://fr.numista.com/forum/topic17016.html
Denomination (value): 20 srang (gold coin)
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 52-nd year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1918
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Denomination (value): 1 sho
Tibetan era: 16-th cycle, 9-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1935
Territory that issued this coin: Tibet
Tibetan era: 15-th cycle, 56-th year
Year of the Gregorian calendar: 1922
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