Modern mints and paper currency issuing centers in various countries of the world
▪ Mints of Germany
▪ Federal Reserve banks of the United States of America
▪ Mints of the USA
▪ Mints of the Russian Federation
Mints of Germany
There are 5 mints in the nowadays Federal Republic of Germany. They are striking German EURO coins. Each mint has its unique single-letter code:
A — Berlin (#1).
D — Munich (#2).
F — Stuttgart (#3).
G — Karlsruhe (#4).
J — Hamburg (#5).
You can find location of these mints on this piece of a Yandex-map (click to show/hide).
As you can see, most of those mints are situated in the south of the country, whereas all the rest are placed near the northern borders of the Germany.
Federal Reserve banks of the USA
The United States of America don't actually have their own paper currency; the so-called Federal Reserve notes are issued instead — by the private, i.e. non-state, structure called “Federal Reserve” or “The FED”. It was created in 1913, when American President Woodrow Wilson has signed the Federal Reserve Act. After this law entered info force, the US government couldn't issue the United States notes and has to ask the Fed for issuing certain volume of Federal Reserve notes (which are by mistake called everywhere “the United States dollar”) in debt. The point is, the Fed actually makes (prints) Federal Reserve notes from nothing in sense that these notes have neither gold backing nor any other possible backing, so the amount of these notes is not limited by any objective factor; and then the Fed gets their money back, plus the debt interest. Bretton Woods Agreement, signed in 1944, has enacted all world trade to be implemented through the Federal Reserve notes only. It means that no country is now allowed to sell its oil, natural gas, you name it for its own currency. Hence, they first buy necessary volume of Federal Reserve notes (which have no economic backing), and then sell their mineral wealth for these notes.
Well, the 35-th American President John Fitzgerald Kennedy has issued the Executive Order #11110 on June 4, 1963, empowering the Treasury Department of the US to issue the United States notes (in Kennedy's time, that were $2 and $5 bills, in total volume of $4,292,893,815 — approximately $4.3 B) without permission of the Fed; hence the government didn't have to pay debt interest to the Fed. Unlike Federal Reserve notes, Kennedy's US notes have been issued on bail of the silver available in the Treasury. “Unexpectedly”, in just 171 days, on November 22, 1963, Kennedy has been assassinated. His Executive Order #11110 is still in force, but none of the American Presidents following John Kennedy takes the liberty to follow that Order. Guess why?
The Federal Reserve has its representatives: there are 12 Federal Reserve banks around the US. These banks are non-state as well, and each of these banks is directed by a private person. Each of the Federal Reserve banks issuing Federal Reserve notes has its unique code: a numeral and a letter of the English alphabet. The full list of the Federal Reserve banks of the United States of America is provided below, as well as the cities and the states where appropriate bank is located.
|City and US state,
as provided on the note
||New York, New York
||St. Louis, Missouri
||Kansas City, Kansas
||San Francisco, California
This picture demonstrates fragments of the Federal Reserve notes with alphanumeric codes of the issuing bank
It should be remembered, that serial number of the note shall begin with the letter specified as the alphabetic code of given Federal Reserve note.
You can find location of the Federal Reserve banks on this piece of a Yandex-map (click to show/hide). Numbering on the map coincides with the numerical index of the bank.
Mints of the USA
There are now 3 mints in the United States of America. They are as follows: in Denver (the state of Colorado), in Philadelphia (the state of Pennsylvania) and in San Francisco (the state of California). Each mint has its literal code that coincides with the first letter of the city where the mint is located.
D — Denver.
P — Philadelphia.
S — San Francisco.
Coins of the regular coinage are minted in Denver and Philadelphia. The Old Mint in San Francisco is called “The Granite Lady”, and nowadays it's not a mint — it is going to become a museum in 2012. Instead of it, there's a new mint, and its mission is to strike commemorative, anniversary, etc coins in “proof” quality; these coins are made of precious metals, like gold and silver.
Mints of the Russian Federation
There are now two mints in Russia, they are located in Moscow (the capital of the country) and Saint Petersburg; their acronyms are “ÌÌÄ” (MMD) and “ÑÏÌÄ” (SPMD), respectively.
Monograms and letterings of Russian mints that can be found on modern Russian coins in circulation look as follows:
Saint Petersburg mint